Railroad Valley is one of the Central Nevada Desert Basins in the Tonopah Basin and is ~80 miles long north-south and up to 20 miles wide, with some southern areas running southwest to northeast. The southern end of the valley begins near Gray Top Mountain and stretches north all the way to Mount Hamilton. To the east are the Quinn Canyon, Grant, and White Pine Ranges, while to the west are the Pancake and Reveille Ranges. Most of the valley lies in Nye County, but it crosses into White Pine County at its northern end. The valley includes numerous springs including Kate Springs and Blue Eagle Springs, ranches such as the Blue Eagle Ranch, and 2 Tonopah Playas.
The valley has 4 separate Wildlife Management Areas, and valley communities include Currant, Crows Nest, Green Springs, Lockes, and Nyala.