The Amman Citadel is a historical site at the center of downtown Amman, Jordan. Known in Arabic as Jabal al-Qal'a,, the L-shaped hill is one of the seven jabals that originally made up Amman. Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found. It was inhabited by different peoples and cultures until the time of the Umayyads, after which came a period of decline and for much of the time until 1878 the former city became an abandoned pile of ruins only sporadically used by Bedouin and seasonal farmers. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman is considered to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places. The Citadel is considered an important site because it has had a long history of occupation by many great civilizations. Most of the buildings still visible at the site are from the Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad periods. The major buildings at the site are the Temple of Hercules, a Byzantine church, and the Umayyad Palace.
Amman's Roman Theatre is a 6,000-seat, 2nd-century Roman theatre. A famous landmark in the Jordanian capital, it dates back to the Roman period when the city was known as Philadelphia. The theatre and the nearby Odeon are flanking the new Hashemite Plaza from the south and the east respectively, while the Roman Nymphaeum is just a short stroll away in south-westerly direction.
Al-Khazneh is one of the most elaborate temples in the ancient Arab Nabatean Kingdom city of Petra. As with most of the other buildings in this ancient town, including the Monastery, this structure was carved out of a sandstone rock face. The treasury was built by the Arab Nabateans, coinciding with the time of the Hellenistic and Roman Empires and so has classical Greek-influenced architecture. The temple is a popular tourist attraction in both Jordan and the region.
Wadi Rum also known as The Valley of the Moon is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan. Wadi Rum is Arabic for Roman Valley,or "Valley of the Romoioi", as the Greeks were also called in the early Byzantine era by Arab people, probably referring to Christian Byzantine monastic or ascetic communities in the area, for which they were also known as "monks of the desert", before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Ad Deir, also known as El Deir, is a monumental building carved out of rock in the ancient Jordanian city of Petra. Built by the Nabataeans in the 1st century and measuring 50 meters wide by approximately 45 meters high, architecturally the Monastery is an example of the Nabatean Classical style. It is the second most visited building in Petra after Al Khazneh.
Temple of Hercules is a historic site in the Amman Citadel in Amman, Jordan. It was built in the same period as the Roman amphitheater below between AD. It is thought to be the most significant Roman structure in the Amman Citadel, according to an inscription the temple was built when Geminius Marcianus was governor of the Province of Arabia. The site also contains a hand carved out of stones resembling the hand of Hercules.
Al-Karak, also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle. The castle is one of the three largest castles in the region, the other two being in Syria. Al-Karak is the capital city of the Karak Governorate. Al-Karak lies 140 kilometres to the south of Amman on the ancient King's Highway. It is situated on a hilltop about 1,000 metres above sea level and is surrounded on three sides by a valley. Al-Karak has a view of the Dead Sea. A city of about 20,000 people has been built up around the castle and it has buildings from the 19th-century Ottoman period. The town is built on a triangular plateau, with the castle at its narrow southern tip.
Beidha, also sometimes Bayda, is a major Neolithic archaeological site a few kilometres north of Petra near Siq al-Barid in Jordan. It is included in Petra's inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was first excavated by Diana Kirkbride in 1957 and later by Brian Byrd. Three periods of occupation were detected: the Natufian period in the 11th millennium BC, a Pre-Pottery Neolithic B village with masonry construction in the 7th millennium BC and a Nabatean period dating to the 1st or 2nd century BC. Natufian Beidha is characterized as a seasonal encampment, repeatedly occupied over a long period of time. Evidence from lithics recovered along with the layout and position of hearths and roasting areas suggested the occupants were primarily engaged in hunting related activities.
The Siq is the main entrance to the ancient Nabatean city of Petra in southern Jordan. Also known as Siqit, the main entrance in Petra is a dim, narrow gorge winds its way approximately 1.2 kilometres and ends at Petra's most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh. A wide valley outside leading to the Siq is known as the Bab as-Sīq. Unlike slot canyons like Antelope Canyon, which are directly shaped by water, the Siq is a natural geological fault split apart by tectonic forces; only later was it worn smooth by water. The walls that enclose the Siq stand between 91–182 metres in height.
Jerash, the Gerasa of Antiquity, is the capital and largest city of Jerash Governorate, which is situated in the north of Jordan, 48 kilometres north of the capital Amman towards Syria. Jerash Governorate's geographical features vary from cold mountains to fertile valleys from 250 to 300 metres above sea level, suitable for growing a wide variety of crops. During the ِCrusaders period, the city's name, Jerash, was abandoned and changed to Sakib, yet this was not a permanent development, as the name Jerash reappeared in Ottoman tax registers by the 16th century.
Aqaba is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba. Situated in southernmost Jordan, Aqaba is the administrative centre of the Aqaba Governorate. The city has a population of 188,160 and a land area of 375 square kilometres. Today, Aqaba plays a major role in the development of the Jordanian economy, through the vibrant trade and tourism sectors. The Port of Aqaba also serves other countries in the region. Aqaba's strategic location at the northeastern tip of the Red Sea between the continents of Asia and Africa, has made its port important over the course of thousands of years. The ancient city was called Ayla, its strategic location and proximity to copper mines, made it a regional hub for copper production and trade in the Chalcolithic period.
Madaba is the capital city of Madaba Governorate in central Jordan, with a population of about 60,000. It is best known for its Byzantine and Umayyad mosaics, especially a large Byzantine-era mosaic map of the Holy Land. Madaba is located 30 kilometres south-west of the capital Amman.
Mount Nebo is an elevated ridge in Jordan, approximately 817 metres above sea level, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the place where Moses was granted a view of the Promised Land. The view from the summit provides a panorama of the Holy Land and, to the north, a more limited one of the valley of the River Jordan. The West Bank city of Jericho is usually visible from the summit, as is Jerusalem on a very clear day.
The Rainbow Street, originally named Abu Bakr al Siddiq street, is a public space in the historic area of Jabal Amman, near the center of downtown Amman, Jordan. The street runs east from the First Circle to Mango Street, and contains several attractions from roof tops restaurants to pubs. The street runs in front of the British Council building, as well as the headquarters of the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company and the cinema after which the street is renamed. Rainbow Street is the location of numerous companies and shops, among them the Center for Studies on the Built Environment and the headquarters of the Jordan River Foundation. It is also home to sites of Jordan's history, such as the al-Mufti House, the residence of King Talal and the home of former military commander and Prime Minister Zaid ibn Shaker. Souk Jara lies nearby the street.
The Jordan Archaeological Museum is located in the Amman Citadel of Amman, Jordan. Built in 1951, it presents artifacts from archaeological sites in Jordan, dating from prehistoric times to the 15th century. The collections are arranged in chronological order and include items of everyday life such as flint, glass, metal and pottery objects, as well as more artistic items such as jewelry and statues. The museum also includes a coin collection. The museum formerly housed some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including the only copper scroll, which are now on display in the newly established Jordan Museum, along with the Ain Ghazal statues, which are among the oldest statues ever made by human civilization..
Qasr Amra, also transcribed as Quseir Amra or Qusayr Amra, is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan. It was built early in the 8th century, some time between 723 and 743, by Walid Ibn Yazid, the future Umayyad caliph Walid II, whose dominance of the region was rising at the time. It is considered one of the most important examples of early Islamic art and architecture. The discovery of an inscription during work in 2012 has allowed for more accurate dating of the structure. The building is actually the remnant of a larger complex that included an actual castle, of which only the foundation remains. What stands today is a small country cabin, meant as a royal retreat, without any military function.